Regular pruning of the noble plant is extremely important for a rich harvest. But pruning is not pruning here. There are a number of things to consider.© Sinuswelle - Fotolia.com
Cutting measures are of primary importance for the plum (Prunus domestica subsp. Italica), after all, the tree should appear handsome and form a crown that is as stable as possible. To make this possible, the tree pruning should not be neglected from the start. Annual cuts contribute to the health and growth of the plant. Different types of cuts are used, which will now be presented in detail.
Plums can be purchased in different growth forms:
- Espalier shape - up to half a meter high
- Bush tree - about 60 cm in height, has several leading drives
- Niederstamm - up to a meter high
- Half-stem - about 1.5 meters high
- Hochstamm - over 1.6 meters high
These height differences are not decisive for the cut, this follows the same pattern for all stem shapes.
A closer look at the structure of the plum
The structure, which is unique to each plant and is to be emphasized or worked out by means of targeted cutting measures, is basically the same.
The plums are grown on different grafting. The result is the growth forms described above and different lengths of the stems. The processing agency follows the root of the processing document. This can be at different heights on the trunk.
Each tribe has several main branches. The extension of the trunk should grow straight up in the middle. Each tribe should have about four to five main branches. The fruit branches branch off from the extensions of the leading branches. During the cut, the hobby gardener should keep an eye on this basic shape.
When should the prune be cut?
After the first year of standing, the parenting cut can begin. Regular pruning measures get the plum better than a radical pruning.
What needs to be considered before cutting?
The plant should preferably be cut in spring, before budding. In any case, it should be a frost-free day. The tool used should be particularly sharp so that smooth cuts are achieved and the prunes do not become vulnerable to pests and fungi due to their cut edges. The sterility of the cutting tools must also be ensured. This can be ensured by disinfecting the tool with alcohol before cutting. Use caution during editing. The branches and shoots must not show any bruises. After the cut, a wound closure agent should be applied.
The first measure - the pruning
With the planting cut, the cutting measures on the plum begin. The cut is made in the spring after planting. It is not relevant when the noble plum was originally planted. Plant pruning is primarily about working out the main shoot and the main branches mentioned above. For this it is necessary to remove several side shoots. The later tree shape particularly endangers shoots that grow vertically upwards and thus congruent with the main shoot. Suitable guide branches are located at different heights around the trunk and have an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the main shoot.
" Tip: The removal of steeply growing side shoots is particularly important for the crown build-up.
Another task during the pruning is to shorten the main shoots. These are reduced by about a third. One eye should be left on the branch.
To be used regularly - the educational cut
The childbirth cut is due annually and should be done on a frost-free day in the months between November and February. The declared goal is to achieve the desired crown formation. The crown is exposed for this. Six to eight side branches should form per leading branch. The remaining shoots are removed up to a length of ten centimeters. All weak and inward growing shoots are also removed.
" Tip: It takes between five and ten years for the crowning to be completed and the parenting cut to fail and to be replaced by the maintenance cut.
Beauty treatment for the plum - the annual maintenance cut
The maintenance cut is carried out after the harvest. Here, too, the crown is first considered. All shoots growing vertically upwards and facing inwards are removed. The maintenance cut also serves the general control of the plant. All branches and shoots that impair the growth form and hinder the airy crown shape are removed. Sick or dead wood is also cut out.
Why pruning prune is a priority?
With the measures just described, the tree can be kept healthy. The tree grows all the more vigorously when it forms young wood after being cut. If the tree pruning is neglected or remains completely absent, the fruit shoots will age. The plum harvest lasts only a few years because the plant is weakened more and more and no longer has enough strength to develop the fruit?